New blood test method to warn the elderly, the accuracy rate of dementia reaches 94%

New blood test method to warn the elderly, the accuracy rate of dementia reaches 94%:

The new study found a simple blood test method that can make an early warning before the elderly dementia symptoms have not appeared, and the best PET at present. The accuracy of the scan results has reached 94%. More importantly, this screening method will significantly advance the clinical research rate of elderly dementia drugs.

  • 20 years before the onset of symptoms

Old-age dementia (also known as Alzheimer’s disease ) has been documented for more than a hundred years, and there are no drugs that can effectively delay or control the deterioration of memory, and there is no cure for drugs. Recently, some new drugs that were originally optimistic about the industry are disappointing in clinical performance.

One difficulty in developing drugs to treat the disease is that when the symptoms are manifested, damage to the brain’s neurons has been caused, almost irreversible. Therefore, many researchers now focus on how to predict this disease early.

In fact, in the 20 years before the onset of symptoms of memory loss in the elderly, dementia has begun to accumulate in the brain. Early detection will greatly reduce the chance of disease progression.

  • Blood detection mechanism

According to the investigator, this method identifies patients as “amyloid-positive” or “amylase-negative” by detecting the ratio of two amyloid proteins, amyloid 42 and amyloid 40, in the blood. If the accumulation of amyloid in the brain increases, the researchers found that the ratio of these two proteins will decrease. The earliest version of this method appeared two years ago, which improves the accuracy of the test.

The study involved 158 adults over 50 years of age. Except for 10 people, other people’s cognition is normal. Everyone had a blood test and a PET scan of the brain. The results showed that 88% of the blood test results were consistent with the PET scan results.

As a means of clinical testing, such accuracy is not enough. The researchers combined several other factors.

The first is age. According to the study, the chance of suffering from dementia in the elderly after the age of 65 doubles every five years. In addition, the APOE4 variant gene also increases the risk of disease by 3 to 5 times. Finally, gender is also very relevant, and two-thirds of the patients are women.

Randall J. Bateman, one of the main investigators at the University of Washington School of Medicine, said that after combining the first two factors, the accuracy of the test evaluation increased to 94%, while the gender factor had no significant effect on accuracy.

The blood test successfully intercepted the “fish that leaked the net”
What is even more exciting for researchers is that this assay is more accurate than PET brain scans at the beginning of the accumulation of amyloid in the brain. PET brain scans are currently considered the “gold standard” for the diagnosis of dementia in the elderly.

In this study, some patients with positive initial blood tests were negative for PET scans, so researchers began to think that blood tests were inaccurate. However, after the average of four years, the brain was detected again on the subject, and a positive result was obtained. This means that blood tests alert the disease earlier than brain scan detection.

The study also showed that blood tests were performed first, and if a positive result was obtained and a PET brain examination was performed, the number of appointments for PET examinations would be reduced by nearly two-thirds.

Blood tests can greatly speed up drug development
This blood test can be put into use at the clinic within a few years. If an effective drug that delays the progression of the disease can be developed, the combination of the two will be more effective.

The blood test will be helpful for the latter study. The current clinical study of drugs for delaying dementia in the elderly is largely limited by the difficulty in finding subjects with some signs of aura in the brain but who have not yet developed symptoms. Blood testing is an effective way to find these objects.

Bateman said: “Now we use brain scans to screen clinical subjects, which is time-consuming and costly. Patients who are waiting to be examined are queued for several years. With blood tests, we can screen thousands of people in a month. This means that We will speed up the identification of patients involved in drug clinical trials and accelerate drug development.”

Be aware that PET inspections can cost up to $4,000 each time. In addition, a single hospital facility can only schedule a few PET exams per month. Because these facilities must first meet the patient’s reservation, and then accept the study-oriented appointment.

“If you want to screen the subjects involved in the clinical study, about 10,000 people will be scanned for 1,500 to 2,000 people,” Bateman said. “Reducing the number of PET tests will allow us to double the clinical budget within the same budget and time. Research. Not reluctant to spend $4,000 on a scan, we worry that millions of patients suffer from this disease, and we have no effective treatment. If we can speed up clinical trials, we will find treatment faster. Program.”

Blood Pressure Chart, Systolic Vs Diastolic, and Normal Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure Chart, Systolic Vs Diastolic, and Normal Blood Pressure:


Do you know that the blood pressure readings are given in two numbers? The maximum number of pressure on your heart’s exercise during the topmost heart rate (systolic pressure), according to the doctor, is the amount of pressure in your arteries between the beats (diastolic pressure).
Doctors say that the numerical difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressure is also called pressure off your nerves. For example, if your rest of the blood pressure is 120/80 millimeters of mercury, then it is possible that your pulse pressure may be up to 40.
Systolic and diastolic pressure are both very important for health. If the reading is too high, hypertension may be present. If the blood pressure reading is very low. There may be insufficient blood flow in critical organs such as the brain and heart.

What Is Diastolic Blood Pressure?

Diastolic blood pressure is the blood pressure inside the arteries between the heartbeat, and when the heart is not actively ejecting the blood in the arteries.
After the contraction of the heart completes, cardiac ventricles rest throughout the moment so that they can be filled again with blood, in preparation for the next contraction. This period of ventricular relaxation is called “diastole” and during diastole, blood pressure is called diastolic blood pressure.
Diastolic Blood Pressure: Normal, High and Low
During rest, a “normal” diastolic blood pressure is 80 mmHg or less.
In the problem of hypertension, diastolic blood pressure often increases during quiet rest.
Diastolic hypotension ( when diastolic blood pressure is low ) it can be seen with dehydration or with episodes of bleeding, or if the arteries are unusually dispersed.

What Is Systolic Blood Pressure?

Systolic Blood Pressure

The pressure emitted by your blood flowing through our arteries is not stable, but it is dynamic, and it constantly shows what the heart is doing in a moment.
When our heart is beating actively, it is extracting blood out in the arteries. This rapid rejection of blood in the arteries causes the pressure to increase within the arteries. Summit blood pressure, which reached the time of active heart contraction, is called systolic blood pressure.
A “normal” systolic blood pressure is 120 mmHg or below when a person is sitting quietly.

  • High Systolic Blood Pressure

When a person is exercising, during the period of emotional stress, or at some other time when the heart is motivated to relax more easily, the force of heart contraction increases – and due to this the systolic pressure increases goes.
The increase in systolic blood pressure during these conditions of stress related to the heart is completely normal.

  • Low Systolic Blood Pressure

Systolic hypotension is called when systolic blood pressure is lower than normal. If systolic hypotension is severe enough, it can cause lighthouse, weakness, unconsciousness, and dizziness or organ failure. Most people do not know that a general condition which produces systolic hypotension is orthostatic hypotension.

  • Importance of Measuring Blood Pressure During Rest

Do you know that blood pressure is a very dynamic thing? This level of your blood pressure depends on the activity of your heart and the elasticity of your arteries. As we have seen, blood pressure in the form of heart cycles between systole and diastole is actively changing every moment.
Apart from this, many people have found that systolic and diastolic blood pressure can change to a great extent every minute, depending on the condition of your activity, your stressful situation, your hydration conditions, and many situations. other factors.

It can also mean that to accurately diagnose high blood pressure, it is important to control as many “external” factors as possible. The standard told by doctors is required to take blood pressure in a quiet, warm environment when you are resting for at least five to ten minutes quietly.

To check blood pressure in this way, there is also a challenge in the office of today’s special, suffering physician, which should be more than the challenge to accurately diagnose high blood pressure.

This is the reason that today most doctors also recommend recording blood pressure in an extended period of time, before diagnosing hypertension

Healthy Life With Diabetes,How To Control Blood Sugar?

Healthy Life With Diabetes,How To Control Blood Sugar?

 We continue the series of materials on the rules of life with diabetes, beginning in previous issues of Drug Review.
 

On November 14, World Diabetes Day was celebrated around the world. Health Organization (WHO) in response to growing concerns about the magnitude of the threat posed by diabetes.


The goal of World Diabetes Day is to increase awareness of diabetes – not only about the number of people with diabetes, but also about how to prevent them development of this disease in many cases.

We continue the series of materials on the rules of life with diabetes, beginning in previous issues of Drug Review. Today we will discuss one of the most important aspects of the treatment of “sweet disease” – the proper control of blood glucose levels.

The ability to keep the disease under control and monitor the quality of treatment in patients with diabetes on a daily basis appeared in the early 1970s. The first blood glucose meters (devices for measuring blood glucose) were cumbersome and inconvenient to use, but made it possible, without leaving home, to track their condition.

After all well-being, even with serious deviations of blood glucose levels in people with diabetes, can be completely normal. And this is the main cunning of the disease.
An a person may feel well and be unaware that he is two steps away from hypoglycemia (a life-threatening condition characterized by a decrease in plasma glucose below 3.9 mmol / l, which can lead to hypoglycemic coma with loss of consciousness).

And in this sense, the emergence in the 80s of the last century, portable blood glucose meters, measuring for a few seconds, experts compare in importance with the discovery of insulin. Thanks to blood glucose meters, people with diabetes have the opportunity not only to control their condition but also to change the dose of the drugs taken when the normal indicators change.

In our country, the first portable blood glucose meters began to be widely used in the early 90s. And since then they are a constant companion of the vast majority of people with diabetes.

Previously, our patients had to come to the laboratory once a month and have a fasting blood test and daily urinalysis, says Alexander Mayorov. – If the test results were good, it was considered that the patient would safely live a whole month on such indicators, which, of course, was an illusion. After all, with diabetes, the situation is constantly changing. Depending on nutrition, physical and emotional stress, etc.

Modern blood glucose meters store results in their memory in accordance with the date and time of measurement. Without constant monitoring of blood glucose (sometimes in the middle of the night), our patients can not do. The main thing is to do it right.
Who, how, when?

For many years, the use of blood glucose meters in our country by specialists has determined the optimal blood glucose control regime for people with diabetes, depending on what type of disease they have, on what type of treatment they are and what results of treatment they have achieved.

In people with type 1 diabetes, blood glucose level is monitored at least 4 times a day (before each meal and at night). Additionally, you can see blood glucose in the middle of the night, after taking an unusual meal, strong physical exertion and (periodically) 2 hours after eating.

In case of diabetes mellitus type 2, the measurement frequency may vary. If a person receives insulin in the mode of repeated injections, he should control the level of blood glucose in the same way as people with type 1 diabetes mellitus – at least 4 times a day. If he is on pills and / or only on one injection of long-acting insulin, one measurement per day at a different time of day is sufficient. And, finally, if the patient receives the so-called mixed insulin (short and long-acting in one bottle), he should conduct self-monitoring of the blood glucose level at least 2 times a day at different times.

Plus, patients with type 2 diabetes who take glucose-lowering tablets, one day a week should arrange a so-called profile self-monitoring of blood glucose, which is at least 4 measurements per day.

The goals for blood glucose, which should be sought during self-monitoring, are individual and should be discussed with your doctor.

  • Additional options


In addition to self-monitoring of glucose, in some cases, people with diabetes may need to measure the level of so-called ketone bodies, which are formed in large quantities during decompensation of the disease and a large lack of insulin in the body.

Some manufacturers of blood glucose meters went further and began to produce devices that, in addition to blood glucose, can also determine cholesterol and other blood lipids, which are often elevated in many

Only a few, alas, can afford to afford such a level of self-control. Despite the standards laid down in the latest recommendations of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, implying free provision of test strips (consumables) to blood glucose meters for people with type 1 diabetes (1460 measurements per year) and type 2 

Due to problems with financing in the regions, these recommendations are not fully implemented, and in some, they are not implemented at all. And this is a matter of constant concern for both the doctors themselves and their patients, whose daily self-monitoring of glucose should be an integral part of the treatment of diabetes.

  • age over 45;

overweight and obesity (body mass index more than 25 kg / m2);
having close relatives (parents or siblings) with type 2 diabetes mellitus;

  • low physical activity;

impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance in the past;
gestational diabetes mellitus (which occurs during pregnancy) or the birth of a large child (more than 4 kg);

arterial hypertension (pressure more than 140/90 mm Hg. Art. or its drug treatment);
polycystic ovary syndrome (in women);
high density cholesterol (“good”) in the blood is less than 0.9 mmol / l and / or the level of triglycerides more than 2.82 mmol / l;
the presence of cardiovascular diseases.

If you have overweight or obesity and one additional risk factor listed above, you should be examined at any age. Persons without these risk factors should be screened for diabetes from the age of 45 years. If the result is normal, it must be done every three years. If pre-diabetes is detected, repeated examinations (including a glucose load test) are performed annually.

What is high blood pressure (hypertension)?

What is high blood pressure (hypertension)?
 
Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a condition in which blood vessels constantly experience high blood pressure. Through the blood vessels is transferred from the heart to all other parts of the body. With each contraction, the heart pumps blood into the vessels. Blood pressure is created by the force of blood pumped by the heart and acting on the walls of blood vessels (arteries). The higher the pressure, the harder the heart to pump blood.
 
Normal blood pressure in adults is defined as a blood pressure of 120 mm Hg1 at the time of contraction of the heart (systolic) and a blood pressure of 80 mm Hg at the time of its relaxation (diastolic). Blood pressure is considered elevated or high if systolic blood pressure is equal to or greater than 140 mm Hg and / or diastolic blood pressure is equal to or greater than 90 mm Hg.
 
2. Why is high blood pressure dangerous?
 
The higher the blood pressure, the higher the risk of damage to the heart or blood vessels in the main organs, such as the brain or kidneys.
 
Uncontrolled hypertension can lead to a heart attack, an enlarged heart and, ultimately, heart failure. Extensions (aneurysms) may develop in the blood vessels and there may appear vulnerabilities in which the vessels are more likely to become blocked and torn. Pressure in the blood vessels can lead to bleeding in the brain and the development of stroke. Hypertension can also lead to kidney failure, blindness, and cognitive impairment.
 
The health effects of hypertension can be exacerbated by other factors that increase the likelihood of heart attack, stroke, and renal failure. These factors include tobacco use, unhealthy diet, harmful use of alcohol, lack of physical activity and sustained stress, as well as obesity, high cholesterol and diabetes.
 
3. How to prevent and treat high blood pressure?
 
All adults should control their blood pressure, know their blood pressure is important. In the case of high blood pressure, consult a health professional.
 
For some people, it may be enough to change their lifestyle to normalize their blood pressure — stop using tobacco, go on a healthy diet, exercise regularly and avoid harmful alcohol. Reducing salt intake can also contribute to this. For other people, such changes are not enough, and they need medications to regulate blood pressure.
 
Adults can support treatment by adhering to medical prescriptions and monitoring their health.
 
People with high blood pressure who also have high blood sugar, elevated blood cholesterol, or kidney problems are at increased risk of heart attack and stroke. Therefore, it is important to regularly check blood sugar levels, blood cholesterol levels and urine protein levels.
 
To minimize the risk of developing high blood pressure and its adverse effects, each person can take five specific steps:
 
Healthy food:
 
lead a healthy lifestyle and pay special attention to the proper nutrition of children and young people;
 
reduce salt intake to less than 5 grams per day (slightly less than one teaspoon);
 
a day; reduce saturated fat intake and total fat intake.
 
Avoid harmful use of alcohol, that is, limit consumption of one standard dose of alcohol per day.
 
Engage in physical activity:
 
regularly maintain physical activity and encourage physical activity of children and young people (at least 30 minutes a day);
maintain a normal weight: the loss of every 5 kg of excess weight can contribute to a decrease in systolic blood pressure by 2-10 points.
Stop tobacco use and exposure to tobacco products.
Manage stress in such healthy ways as meditation, proper exercise and positive social contacts.
 
4. How widespread is high blood pressure?
 
More than one in five adults in the world has increased blood pressure – this condition leads to almost half of deaths from stroke and heart disease. Complications of hypertension cause 9.4 million annual deaths in the world.
 
In almost all high-income countries, widespread diagnosis and inexpensive drug treatment have led to a sharp decline in the proportion of people with high blood pressure and average blood pressure at the level of the entire population. This contributed to a reduction in mortality from heart disease. For example, the prevalence of high blood pressure in the WHO region for the Americas in 2014 was 18%, compared with 31% in 1980.
 
Conversely, low-income countries have the highest levels of high blood pressure prevalence. It is estimated that over 30% of adults in many countries in the WHO African Region have high blood pressure, and their proportion is increasing. Moreover, the average blood pressure levels in this region far exceed global average levels.
 
Many people with high blood pressure in developing countries are not aware of their illness and do not have access to treatment that helps keep their blood pressure under control and significantly reduce the risk of death and disability from heart disease and stroke. The identification, treatment and control of hypertension is an important public health priority throughout the world.