Research finds microscopic mechanisms of frustration and abandonment

Research finds microscopic mechanisms of frustration and abandonment:
Self-protection or self-transcendence?

New research found that giving up or admitting is the result of a special mechanism in the brain that balances and maintains the brain’s own chemical composition. Normal mental state. Understanding the mechanisms by which the brain works helps to break through its own limitations and achieve greater control over emotions and behaviors.

Previous studies have found that people in the “pursuit of” some kind of payback time, whether tangible money, food, physical satisfaction or abstract love or power, both in the brain to produce something called dopamine (dopamine) The ingredients make people feel happy.

This is also the driving force that drives most people to live every day, and feels happy in the pursuit of various goals. However, many goals are difficult to achieve, and this will cause pain.

Research recently published in the journal frontier “cell” (Cell) found that making brain give up the decision or admit defeat, is another chemical pain-sensitive pigment results (nociceptin) secretion. Pain is a chemical component that inhibits dopamine .

The study took mice to experiment and discover and hide the candy in the corner. The difficulty of starting is very low, and the mice have tried and succeeded in picking up the candy. As the experimenter increased the difficulty of obtaining the candy pieces, eventually all the mice gave up the behavior of digging the candy pieces.

At this time, the experimenter observed that the pain-sensitive neurons in the mouse brain were most active.

According to the researchers, this shows that the secretion of pain-sensitive hormones is the mechanism by which the body seeks self-balancing and protection. For example, in a wild environment, endless dangerous activities can cause physical injury or death. When the brain assesses the risk and difficulty to a certain extent, this mechanism will secrete components that inhibit dopamine and prevent the body from continuing on the road of “seeking rewards”.

Researchers believe that this finding is important for helping mental illnesses such as depression and addiction.

For contemporary medicine, understanding the functioning of the body helps to use the medicine to help the brain achieve the balance of these chemicals; however, if you can start from your own and use your self-awareness to achieve balance, you may achieve “self-transcendence”. 

Research 2019:”Good”stress helps the body resist disease and disease

Research 2019:”Good”stress helps the body resist disease and disease:

Popularity: 157 [Size] Tai   Zhong   smallTags : sauna , longevity , tolerance[Epoch Times, August 15th, 2019] A new study shows that temporarily putting pressure on the body, such as a sauna or running, can help increase the body’s tolerance in the event of a disease attack. Force .

The new study found that the rate of autophagy in the body was elevated during a brief compression. The aging of the body and the damage of damaged cellular components are used to generate new cells. The process of producing energy after combustion is the process of autophagy. This process is related to the extension of life.

Recently published in Nature. The study at Nature Communications observed the benefits of C. Elegans after moderate heat stress.

Caenorhabditis elegans is a non-parasitic nematode with a transparent body and a length of about 1 mm. It is commonly found in soils in temperate regions, and its mechanisms of many genes and signaling pathways are similar to those of humans. The researchers asked them to test their resistance to Huntington’s Disease (HD) after waiting for an hour at a much higher temperature than normal ambient temperature.

Huntington’s disease is a deadly genetic disease in which genetic variation causes excessive accumulation of neuronal proteins, leading to impaired brain function. The disease is currently incurable.

Researchers have found that protein accumulation has been alleviated in C. elegans that has experienced “hot sauna”, suggesting that short-term stress may increase the body’s resistance to disease and aging.

Malene Hansen, the lead author of the study, said: “Our findings are exciting because it may help to find new ways to delay the deterioration of neurological disorders, such as old-age dementia, Parkinson’s disease, etc. The characteristics of pathogenicity due to protein accumulation.”

Another researcher, Caroline Kumsa, said: “A lot of people ask us if this means that you should have more sauna or hot yoga.”

“This may not be a bad idea. Epidemiological studies do show that regular saunas have a certain relationship with longevity . But we have to do more research to find out whether this is related to autophagy caused by thermal stress, just like As seen in the C. elegans experiment.”

Scientists may have found a longevity medicine

Scientists may have found a longevity medicine

Scientists have discovered that by opening and closing a particular gene, and then edit the apparent genome , may be able to achieve some degree of immortality .

According to MIT Technology Review reported, San Diego Sol grams Institute (Salk Institute for Biological Studies) Recent experimental use of ” rejuvenating panacea”, successfully treated progeria mice (progeria) – all premature aging mouse organs, all cells Return to normal levels.

This is currently an advanced genetic “reprogramming” technique: resetting the apparent signs of genes, ie, changing the chemical switches in the cell that determine which genes turn on and off. After erasing these marks, a cell seems to have forgotten that it should grow into a skin cell or a bone cell, and “regresses” back to a more primitive embryo state. Many laboratories use this technique to make stem cells .

However, Juan Carlos Izpisua Belmonte of the Salk Institute for Biological Research experimented with this technique for living organisms and even humans. He believes that this may be the ” immortality medicine” of human beings .

Izpisua Belmonte believes that this technology is likely to be achieved by extending the lifespan of people for another 30 to 50 years. “I think people who can live to 130 are now born. I am sure.”

This technique was first discovered by the Japanese scientist Shinya Yamanaka who won the Nobel Prize. As early as 2006, he discovered that by adding four proteins to adult cells, he could “reprogram” the cells, allowing the cells to return to the embryonic state both in appearance and function. The combination of these proteins is called the “Yamanaka factors”.

Successful application example:

Many scientists believe that the discovery in the mountains will revolutionize organ transplant surgery. Japanese scientists treat an 80-year-old woman with eye disease with macular variations. They took a sample of the cells from her and used the “mountain elements” to return the cells to the embryonic state and then led them to grow into retinal cells. In 2014, the woman became the first patient in the world to use a laboratory-grown organ for transplantation. After the operation, her eyes felt “brighter” and her vision no longer deteriorated.

Prior to this, researchers at the National Cancer Research Center in Spain developed this technology in another direction – mice that obtained this “mountain element” copy in the genome could also reprogram the cells. The researchers found that this technique is not only available in culture dishes, but also as effective in adult animals.

Scientists believe that this will create a real “magic bullet” for human beings, and it is possible to achieve the rejuvenation of the entire human body.


However, scientists are aware of the potential risks. Excessive elimination of gene methylation markers will cause cells to lose “identity information.” Pradeep Reddy, a researcher at the Salk Institute for Biological Research, said: “You have cleared their memories. These blank cells may grow into normal cells, may grow into cells that are incapable of performing their intended tasks, or may grow into cancer. cell.”

So in the experiment at the beginning of this article, when the researchers were excited about such results, the mice died within three or four days after receiving the treatment. The cause of death is that treatment triggers cell variability leading to tumors. Researchers estimate that it may be related to excessive use of rejuvenating drugs.

Improved version: Did you really find a longevity medicine?
In 2016, Izpisua Belmonte’s team improved the way to control the use of “mountain elements” in mice with premature aging. This time, through genetic editing, the mouse’s body produces “mountain elements”, but it is produced by the antibiotic doxycycline.

They grouped the mice, one group was able to drink water with doxycycline at any time; the other group had doxycycline in the water only two days a week. The results showed that mice that drank a lot of antibiotics soon died; rats with moderate antibiotics did not have long tumors, and the body was more robust, the kidneys and spleen functioned better, and the heart beat more vigorously.

Overall, these mice are 30% longer than normal mice.

The study by Izpisua Belmonte attracted the attention of peers after it was published in the authoritative journal Cell.

Most of the doubts are whether this drug can really prevent aging. It is suspected that this method only serves the apparent purpose of “eliminating wrinkles” and does not really touch the essence of aging. If so, then the drug is just a “beauty” role.

Jan Vijg, director of the Department of Genetics at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York, said, “Aging is the process of combining hundreds of changes.” Using simple drugs can reverse aging. He doesn’t think Most likely.

There are also doubts that Izpisua Belmonte’s experiment is only for mice with premature aging, and it is not effective for normal mice.

Izpisua Belmonte responded that he is working on a study to answer this question. But experiments with ordinary mice take longer to get results. Ordinary mice have a life span of 2 to 2.5 years. Unlike the mice with premature aging used in previous experiments, they have a life span of only about 3 months.

Recently foreseeable use:

Although it is not so easy to achieve rejuvenation of the entire human body, researchers have seen the enormous potential of this technology for a variety of specific diseases and are expected to be realized in the next few years.

AgeX and Turn Biotechnologies are two startups that are at the forefront. AgeX is investigating the use of this technology to treat heart disease, and is also applying for policy approvals for clinical trials of osteoarthritis and age-related muscle loss therapies.

GenuCure, another biotechnology company, is studying the use of this technology to rejuvenate the body’s cartilage. It is developing a drug that can be injected into the knee to rejuvenate the kneecap and replace expensive knee replacement surgery. 

New research 2019 finds that human microbacteria produce thousands of unknown proteins

New research 2019 finds that human microbacteria produce thousands of unknown proteins:


Schematic diagram of the microbial environment in the human intestine. 

 tags : protein , microbes
[Epoch Times, August 20, 2019] A new study by Stanford University found that human microbes produce more than 4,000 protein species that were previously unknown. These proteins are small, each with a length of less than 50 amino acids, which scientists believe are important for human health and the development of new antibiotics.

The human body is like a complicated world in which there are trillions of bacteria. A large body of evidence shows that the health of the human body is inextricably linked to the composition of these bacteria and the robustness of the lines of defense. Scientists still don’t know exactly how they work.

Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have discovered that these microbes in the human body produce thousands of tiny proteins that scientists have never noticed before. They believe that these proteins play an important role in competing for priority among different strains in biological systems, between bacteria, between them and their hosts, and in maintaining the daily health and optimal state of bacteria.

These proteins are each less than 50 amino acids in length. Ami Bhatt, the lead author of the study, believes that they are likely to form the basic material that scientists have not previously known in their unique shape, and that they have many functions, including acting as a “biological switch” for micro-bacteria, helping micro-bacteria in different functional states. Switching, as well as exciting specific responses to other cells, and the like.

To find these tiny proteins, the researchers amplified the bacterial genome.

Only a certain part contains the information needed to make a protein,” Bhatt said. “Usually, we look for the words ‘starting’ and ‘ending’ in the book. Intergenic gene code. This method is suitable for larger proteins, and for smaller proteins, there are many uncertainties in the results obtained.”

By comparing the results of multiple iterations, the researchers found 4,539 small proteins. “To be honest, we don’t know how many we will find,” Bhatt said. “We have no expectations for this. We have found thousands of new proteins, which surprised us.”

Researchers are now further identifying the role of these proteins. For example, by understanding the role of proteins in the competition of intestinal bacteria in the intestinal space and how to fight drugs, new antibiotics can be invented for related proteins.

“They are easier to study and synthesize than larger proteins and can promote drug development. We estimate this will be a valuable area of   research in biology,” Bhatt said.

Research 2019:Coriander Has Many Anti-Cancer, Anti-Bacterial And Antibacterial Effects:

Research 2019:Coriander Has Many Anti-Cancer, Anti-Bacterial And Antibacterial Effects:

Popularity: 3501 [Size]
Updated: 2019-07-24 1:10 PM    Tags : coriander , anti-cancer , antibacterial
[The Epoch Times, July 24, 2019] (The Epoch Times reporter Zhang Ni compiled) A recent study published in the medical journal FASEB found that Chinese favorite coriander (also known as 芫荽) has anticonvulsant and anti-caries effects. Its chemical composition effectively delays the onset of epilepsy and other diseases.

Geoff Abbott, Ph.D., physicist at the University of California-Irvine School of Medicine, said: “We found that herbal cilantro , which is traditionally used for anti- caries , activates potassium channels in the brain, thereby reducing epilepsy. The attack.”

“Specifically, we found that dodecenal, a component of coriander, binds to specific locations in the potassium channel to dilate it, reducing cell excitability.”

Abbott said the study helped develop safer and more effective anticonvulsants.

  • DNA

The history of human edible herbs found in the literature can be traced back to as long as human history. DNA evidence shows that Homo Neanderthalensis began using herbs 48,000 years ago; archaeological evidence shows that ancient humans 800,000 years ago also used herbs.

Modern people are more widely used in various types of herbs, some as seasonings, and the coriander is a kind of seasoning that the British also like.

Human consumption of parsley has been at least 8,000 years old, and it is believed that the plant originally cultivated by the ancient Egyptians was first discovered in the tomb of the Tutankhamen of the Egyptian pharaoh.

“In addition to anti-caries, coriander has anti-cancer , anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial effects, beneficial to the heart, stomach, and analgesic effect.” Abbott said, “and most importantly – it tastes great! 

Weight Loss Research Confirms 3 benefits For”Intermittent fasting”

Weight Loss Research Confirms 3 benefits For”Intermittent fasting”

A clinical study has demonstrated that intermittent fasting has at least three benefits for weight loss. 

In recent years, the ” intermittent fasting ” diet is popular in Europe and the United States. A clinical study has shown that this way of eating has at least three benefits to the human body.

Intermittent fasting is the concentrated intake of food during a certain period of time, and does not eat outside this time period. For example, it is restricted to eat normally between 8 am and 2 pm every day, and fasted at other times.

This eating rule has proven to have a certain weight loss effect. People think that it is a short time to eat, reducing the intake of calories. But a recent study published in the journal Obesity found that the effect of intermittent fasting on weight loss is not related to how much calories are consumed.

The study found that the three major weight loss benefits of intermittent fasting
Courtney Peterson, a lead author of the study and a scientist at the University of Alabama’s Center for Nutritional Obesity, told online news network Inverse, “In clinical research, we found three benefits.”

  • Reduce hunger

The study found that a significant feature of intermittent fasting was the increase in satiety, hunger and loss of appetite, which helped to reduce weight .

The researchers extracted the participants’ blood tests. It was found that during the diet, the ghrelin in their blood was significantly reduced. Gastropin is a hormone secreted by the body when people are hungry, reminding the body to eat.

  •  Accelerate fat breakdown

In addition, they also found that the choice of eating time is also important. The researchers believe that the physiological clock also has a day and night, eating in the “physiological white” period, the body is more effective in the decomposition of fat.

The researchers said the findings also explain why people who choose to eat during the “physiological night” period tend to gain weight.

“We believe that a longer fasting time per day will give the body sufficient time to extract fat from the ‘fat store’ and burn fat.” Peterson said: “Every time you fast for at least 12 to 24 hours, your body will reach its most effective. Fat burning state.”

  • Increase metabolic flexibility

The study also found that intermittent fasting can increase the body’s ” metabolic flexibility”, thereby helping to reduce weight and reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Metabolic flexibility refers to the ability of the human body to switch between different energy sources, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.

Finally, Peterson reminded people to carefully adopt the practice of eating in only 6 hours a day in their study. “In reality, we recommend taking 5-6 days a week, limiting the daily intake within 8-10 hours, which may be compared. Actual.”

Pakistani mangoes are exported to China, and Indians have expressed dissatisfaction.

Pakistani mangoes are exported to China, and Indians have expressed dissatisfaction. Netizens: 
Only eat iron mangoes!

China is a country with a large population. There are many things that can only be imported in large quantities because of its inability to meet domestic demand. Fruit is one of them. When you mention the fruit, you have to say the mango. The next is the mango season. The mangoes of each variety begin to mature, not only the price is relatively cheaper, but also more varieties.

Mango is an evergreen tree of the genus Anacardiaceae native to India. It is one of the famous tropical fruits. It contains vitamin A, a precursor of carotenoids, which is particularly high in all fruits.

In the eyes of the Chinese, mango is an ordinary fruit that can be eaten or not, but it is not good to have a mango in Pakistan.

Pakistan is rich in fruit resources and is known as the “fruit blue” of the East. Mango is the second largest fruit in Pakistan. Mango has the reputation of “king of fruits” in Pakistan. The mangoes here are very sweet, and the color, aroma and taste are highly rated in the international market.

Mango plays an important role in the daily life of Pakistanis. In the summer, people eat mango in a variety of ways, such as taking a small mouth and sucking directly, cutting into small pieces, making desserts, or cutting green mangoes with some vegetables. After mixing, eat. In the Pakistani concept, the summer without mangoes is incomplete.

From January to June, small shops in Pakistan can see small merchants selling mangoes. Both the poor and the rich will bargain with small merchants. The best drink in Pakistan in the summer is the mango juice, which is also the first choice for receiving guests.

India and Pakistan are also major mango producers. However, China used to import Indian mangoes. However, with the penetration of China-Brazil land transportation lines, Chinese people prefer to import Pakistani mangoes. Indians know that Pakistani mangoes have been exported to China. dissatisfied. However, many Chinese netizens said that they support the Pakistani mango into China, and only want to eat the iron mango, it is best to put a label on the mango of the Pakistani iron!

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